Production Methods

1. Job, batch and flow production

生产是创造商品和服务的过程。管理者必须确定组织最有效的方式来生产特定产品。

Production is about creating goods and services. 
Managers have to decide on the most efficient way of organising production for their particular product.

There are three main types of production to choose from:

1.1. 作业生产(Job production)

Job production where items are made individually and each item is finished before the next one is started. 
Designer dresses are made using the job production method.

1.2. 批量生产(Batch production)

Batch production where groups of items are made together. Each batch is finished before starting the next block of goods. For example, a baker first produces a batch of 50 white loaves. Only after they are completed will he or she start baking 50 loaves of brown bread.

1.3. 流水线生产(Flow production)

Flow production where identical, standardised items are produced on an assembly line. Most cars are mass-produced in large factories using conveyor belts and expensive machinery such as robot arms. Workers have specialised jobs, for instance, fitting wheels.

2. Choosing a production method

怎样选择最佳的生产方法?这依赖于所生产的产品的类型和市场的大小。

经营服务行业的小企业,如水管工,使用作业生产方式,因为每个客户都有个性化的需求。定制化的小生产商也使用作业生产方式,因为每次他们做项目是不同的。

批量生产方式是用于满足集团的订单。例如,一套机器可以设定生产500套12号礼服;然后调整成为再生产600套12号礼服。生产出两批。

Flow production is used to mass produce everyday standardised (all the same) items such as soap powder and canned drinks. Economies of scale lead to lower unit costs and prices. Not many small manufacturers can afford the investment needed to mass produce goods. They instead opt for either batch or job production.

流水线生产方式用于高重复性的标准化量产产品,例如皂粉和罐装饮料。规模经济带来更低的单位成本和价格。很多小厂商无法负担得起所需的量产商品所需的投资,他们只能选择作业或批量生产方式。

在单位成本和满足客户的特定需求之间通常有一个权衡。流程生产方式为大众产品提供了规模经济和低成本。

Flow production offers economies of scale and low costs for a one-size-fits-all product.

3. 相关名词

4. Reference


CategoryMethodolodge

MainWiki: Production_Methods (last edited 2014-05-19 19:46:32 by twotwo)